Notes on the Illustrations
Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5 were originally constructed in the experimental handPAM environment at SAIL. They were printed double size on a Varian Statos and then photographically reduced. For this html version, figures 1-5 were constructed newly in CMUCL / OS X vmacs.
Special thanks to the people without whom this project could not have happened. To John McCarthy, for inventing LISP and giving me access to the computer facilities at SAIL. To Jonathan King, Allan Hayes and Ben Laws for long discussions on the pre-computer PAM system. To Jim Collatz for actually learning handPAM before it was implemented. To Hans Moravec and Rodney Brooks for providing the basic graphics tools at SAIL; and to Dick Gabriel and Paul Martin for showing me the finer points of MACLISP.
Thanks also to the Systems Science Laboratory, Xerox Palo Alto Science Center for use of their manuscript preparation facilities in consing up the original version in 1980.
 McCarthy, John, "Recursive functions of symbolic expressions and their computation by machine," Comm. ACM, 1960, vol. 3, no.4.
 Sutherland, Ivan E., "Computer Graphics: Ten Unsolved Problems", Datamation, pages 22-27, May 1966.
 Futrelle, R.P. and Barta, G., "Towards the Design of an Intrinsically Graphical Language", SIGGRAPH '78 Proceedings, pages 28-32, Aug 1978.
 Engelbart, D.C., "Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework," SRI International, Menlo Park, California, Oct 1962.
 English, W.K., Engelbart, D.C., and Berman, M.L., "Display-Selection Techniques for Text Manipulation", IEEE Trans. on Human Factors in Electronics, Vol. HFE-8, No. 1, March 1967.
 Sacerdoti, Earl, "Planning in a Hierarchy of Abstraction Spaces", Adv. Papers 3rd Intl. Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, Stanford University, August 1973.
 Teitelman, Warren, InterLISP Reference Manual, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, l978.
 Lakin, Fred, "A Structure from Manipulation for Text-Graphic Objects", accepted for publication in SIGGRAPH '80, Seattle, Washington, August, 1980.
 Sutherland, Ivan E., "Sketchpad: A Man-Machine Graphical Communication System", Proceedings Spring Joint Computer Conference, pages 329-346, 1963.
 Martin, Paul A., DIP: A Program to Understand Diplomacy Dialogs, PhD thesis, Stanford University, forthcoming.
 McCarthy, John and Talcott, Carolyn, LISP Programming and Proving, Class notes CS 206, Computer Science Dept., Stanford University, 1979.
 Lakin, Fred, "Indigenous Graphics for LISP", in preparation.